Impact of Coronovirus on Environment
Lecturer in Mathematics
Visakha Govt.Degree College(W),Visakhapatnam
In this paper both positive and negative effects of COVID-19 on the environment are been discussed. Natural ecosystems and protected species are at risk during the coronavirus crisis. In many countries, environmental protection workers at national parks and land and marine conservation zones are required to stay at home in lockdown, leaving these areas unmonitored. Their absence has resulted in a rise of illegal deforestation, fishing and wildlife hunting. Most environmental impacts of the coronavirus pandemic, such as a decline in carbon emissions and increase in medical waste, will be temporary.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.
Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.
The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).
At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. WHO will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings become available.
Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1930s when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens was shown to be caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Arthur Schalk and M.C. Hawn described in 1931 a new respiratory infection of chickens in North Dakota. The infection of new-born chicks was characterized by gasping and listlessness. The chicks’ mortality rate was 40–90%. Fred Beaudette and Charles Hudson six years later successfully isolated and cultivated the infectious bronchitis virus which caused the disease. In the 1940s, two more animal coronaviruses, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were isolated. It was not realized at the time that these three different viruses were related.
Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. They were isolated using two different methods in the United Kingdom and the United States. E.C. Kendall, Malcom Byone, and David Tyrrell working at the Common Cold Unit of the British Medical Research Council in 1960 isolated from a boy a novel common cold virus B814. The virus was not able to be cultivated using standard techniques which had successfully cultivated rhinoviruses, adenoviruses and other known common cold viruses. In 1965, Tyrrell and Byone successfully cultivated the novel virus by serially passing it through organ culture of human embryonic trachea. The new cultivating method was introduced to the lab by Bertil Hoorn. The isolated virus when intranasally inoculated into volunteers caused a cold and was inactivated by ether which indicated it had a lipid envelope. Around the same time, Dorothy Hamre and John Procknow at the University of Chicago isolated a novel cold virus 229E from medical students, which they grew in kidney tissue culture. The novel virus 229E, like the virus strain B814, when inoculated into volunteers caused a cold and was inactivated by ether.
Effect on Environment:
The worldwide disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the environment and the climate. The severe decline in planned travel has caused many regions to experience a drop in air pollution. In China, lockdowns and other measures resulted in a 25 per cent reduction in carbon emissions and 50 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions, which one Earth systems scientist estimated may have saved at least 77,000 lives over two months. However, the outbreak has also provided cover for illegal activities such as deforestation of the Amazon rainforest and poaching in Africa, hindered environmental diplomacy efforts, and created economic fallout that is predicted to slow investment in green energy technologies.
IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY:
Amidst the devastating Covid-19 pandemic, a rare positive has been the significant global decrease in air pollution levels. Primarily, experts have measured nitrogen dioxide (NO2), one of the six major air pollutants (in addition to particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, ground-level ozone, and lead). NO2 has, like most other gases, natural and human sources.
In Delhi’s metropolitan area, pollution levels have dropped most dramatically; NO2 levels from March 25 (the day quarantine began) to May 2 have averaged 90 µmol/m2 compared to 162 µmol/m2 from March 1 to March 24. In 2019, NO2 levels from March 25 to May 2 were also far above this year’s levels, averaging 158 µmol/m2.
In Greater Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, a similar trend has been observed as NO2 levels from March 25 to May 2 averaged 77 µmol/m2 compared to 117 µmol/m2 from March 1 to March 24. In 2019, NO2 levels from March 25 to May 2 averaged 122 µmol/m2.
In nearly all other big Indian cities, similar drops in NO2 levels are apparent, highlighting the national scale of India’s lockdown.
IMPACT ON WILDLIFE:
Demand for fish and fish prices have both decreased due to the pandemic, and fishing fleets around the world sit mostly idle. German scientist Rainer Froese has said the fish biomass will increase due to the sharp decline in fishing, and projected that in European waters, some fish such as herring could double their biomass. As of April 2020, signs of aquatic recovery remain mostly anecdotal.
As people stayed at home due to lockdown and travel restrictions, some animals have been spotted in cities. Sea turtles were spotted laying eggs on beaches they once avoided (such as the coast of the Bay of Bengal), due to the lowered levels of human interference and light pollution.
The generation of organic and inorganic waste is indirectly accompanied by a wide range of environmental issues, such as soil erosion, deforestation, air, and water pollution ,.
The quarantine policies, established in most countries, have led consumers to increase their demand for online shopping for home delivery. Consequently, organic waste generated by households has increased. Also, food purchased online is shipped packed, so inorganic waste has also increased.
Many of the root causes of climate change also increase the risk of pandemics. Deforestation, which occurs mostly for agricultural purposes, is the largest cause of habitat loss worldwide. Loss of habitat forces animals to migrate and potentially contact other animals or people and share germs. Large livestock farms can also serve as a source for spillover of infections from animals to people. Less demand for animal meat and more sustainable animal husbandry could decrease emerging infectious disease risk and lower greenhouse gas emissions.
We have many reasons to take climate action to improve our health and reducing risks for infectious disease emergence is one of them.
Corona virus has impacted the environment in both positive and negative ways.Decreasing GHG concentrations during a short period is not a sustainable way to clean up our environment. Furthermore, the virus crisis brings other environmental problems that may last longer and maybe more challenging to manage if countries neglect the impact of the epidemic on the environment.
- ^ Fabricant J (1998). “The Early History of Infectious Bronchitis”. Avian Diseases. 42 (4): 648–650. doi:10.2307/1592697. ISSN 0005-2086. JSTOR 1592697.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Decaro N (2011). “Gammacoronavirus”. In Tidona C, Darai G (eds.). Gammacoronavirus‡: Coronaviridae. The Springer Index of Viruses. Springer. pp. 403–413. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-95919-1_58. ISBN 978-0-387-95919-1. PMC 7176155.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c McIntosh K (1974). “Coronaviruses: A Comparative Review”. In Arber W, Haas R, Henle W, Hofschneider PH, Jerne NK, Koldovský P, Koprowski H, Maaløe O, Rott R (eds.). Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology / Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology / Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitätsforschung. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p. 87. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-65775-7_3. ISBN 978-3-642-65775-7.
- ^ “Il était une fois les coronavirus”. Réalités Biomédicales (in French). 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-04-18.
- ^ Kahn JS, McIntosh K (November 2005). “History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery”. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 24 (11 Suppl): S223–7, discussion S226. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000188166.17324.60. PMID 16378050.
- ^ Mahase E (April 2020). “The BMJ in 1965”. BMJ. 369: m1547. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1547. PMID 32299810.
- ^ Monto AS (1984). “Coronaviruses”. In Evans AS (ed.). Viral Infections of Humans. Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer US. pp. 151–165. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-4727-9_7. ISBN 978-1-4684-4727-9.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kendall EJ, Bynoe ML, Tyrrell DA (July 1962). “Virus isolations from common colds occurring in a residential school”. British Medical Journal. 2 (5297): 82–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5297.82. PMC 1925312. PMID 14455113.
- ^ Richmond C (2005-06-18). “David Tyrrell”. BMJ : British Medical Journal. 330 (7505): 1451. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7505.1451. PMC 558394.
- ^ “Obituary Notices: Malcom Byone”. British Medical Journal. 2 (5660): 827–829. 1969-06-28. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5660.827.
- ^ Tyrrell DA, Bynoe ML (June 1965). “Cultivation of a Novel Type of Common-Cold Virus in Organ Cultures”. British Medical Journal. 1 (5448): 1467–70. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5448.1467. PMC 2166670. PMID 14288084.
- ^ Tyrrell DA, Fielder M (2002). Cold Wars: The Fight Against the Common Cold. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–95. ISBN 978-0-19-263285-2.
- ^ Hagan WA, Bruner DW, Gillespie JH, Timoney JF, Scott FW, Barlough JE (1988). Hagan and Bruner’s Microbiology and Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals: With Reference to Etiology, Epizootiology, Pathogenesis, Immunity, Diagnosis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Cornell University Press. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-8014-1896-9.
- ^ Knapp, Alex. “The Secret History Of The First Coronavirus”. Forbes. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
- ^ Hamre D, Procknow JJ (January 1966). “A new virus isolated from the human respiratory tract”. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 121 (1): 190–3. doi:10.3181/00379727-121-30734. PMID 4285768.
- Estola T (1970). “Coronaviruses, a New Group of Animal RNA Viruses”. Avian Diseases. 14(2): 330–336. doi:2307/1588476. ISSN 0005-2086. JSTOR 1588476.
- Team, The Visual and Data Journalism (28 March 2020). “Coronavirus: A visual guide to the pandemic”. BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020.
18.^ Jump up to:a b Myllyvirta, Lauri (19 February 2020). “Analysis: Coronavirus has temporarily reduced China’s CO2 emissions by a quarter”. CarbonBrief. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
19.^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Zhang, Ruixiong; Zhang, Yuzhong; Lin, Haipeng; Feng, Xu; Fu, Tzung-May; Wang, Yuhang (April 2020). “NOx Emission Reduction and Recovery during COVID-19 in East China”. Atmosphere. 11 (4): 433. doi:10.3390/atmos11040433. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
20.^ Burke, Marshall. “COVID-19 reduces economic activity, which reduces pollution, which saves lives”. Global Food, Environment and Economic Dynamics. Retrieved 16 May2020.
21.^ Jump up to:a b c d McMahon, Jeff (16 March 2020). “Study: Coronavirus Lockdown Likely Saved 77,000 Lives In China Just By Reducing Pollution”. Forbes. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
22.^ Jump up to:a b “Deforestation of Amazon rainforest accelerates amid COVID-19 pandemic”. ABC News. 6 May 2020.
23.^ Jump up to:a b “Deforestation of the Amazon has soared under cover of the coronavirus”. NBC News. 11 May 2020.
24.^ Jump up to:a b “Conservationists fear African animal poaching will increase during COVID-19 pandemic”. ABC News. 14 April 2020.
25.^ Jump up to:a b “‘Filthy bloody business:’ Poachers kill more animals as coronavirus crushes tourism to Africa”. CNBC. 24 April 2020.
26.^ Jump up to:a b “Cop26 climate talks postponed to 2021 amid coronavirus pandemic”. Climate Home News. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
27.^ Jump up to:a b Newburger, Emma (13 March 2020). “Coronavirus could weaken climate change action and hit clean energy investment, researchers warn”. CNBC. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
29.orten, Tristram (8 April 2020). “With Boats Stuck in HarborBecause of COVID-19, Will Fish Bounce Back?”. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
30.^ Reiley, Laura (8 April 2020). “Commercial fishing industry in free fall as restaurants close, consumers hunker down and vessels tie up”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 April2020.
31.^ Millan Lombrana, Laura (17 April 2020). “With Fishing Fleets Tied Up, Marine Life Has a Chance to Recover”. Bloomberg Green. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
- M. MouradRecycling, recovering and preventing “food waste”: competing solutions for food systems sustainability in the United States and France
- Clean. Prod., 126 (2016), pp. 461-477
- K. Schanes, K. Dobernig, B. GözetFood waste matters-a systematic review of household food waste practices and their policy implications
- Clean. Prod., 182 (2018), pp. 978-991