NOTE ON THE RESEARCH ETHICS
1D.Rama Rao, 1N. Sreenivas,2G.Elisha Babu,3K.Ashok,4D.Ramamurthy [email protected]
1Department of Chemistry and 1Dept of Zoology,P.R.Govt College (A) Kakinada
2Department of Education AdikaviNannay University Rajamahendravaram
3Department of Satastics,P.R.Govt College (A) Kakinada
4Department of Chemistry GDC9A) Tuni
Research Ethics are a set of ethics that govern how scientific and other research is performed at research institutions like Universities, Colleges. There is also wide variation on how exactly these values should be interpreted in practice. Government agencies who fund or commission research often publishes code of conduct for researchers, or code of ethics. Some ethical codes may have the force of law behind them, while others may simply be advisable. Every researcher should be aware of that even if you do nothing illegal, doing something unethical may end their research career. In this paper the existing global research ethics are presented.
Research ethics are important for a number of reasons. They promote the aims of research, like the expansion of knowledge. These ethics support the values required for collaborative work, essential because scientific research depends on collaboration between researchers and groups. Many researchers are supported by public money, regulations on conflicts of interest, misconduct, and research involving humans or animals are necessary to ensure that money is spent appropriately. Ethics in research ensure that the public can trust research, for people to support and fund research, they have to be confident in it. These ethics support important social and moral values, such as the principle of doing no harm to other.
The following are the core ethics for the research.
- Objectivity: The key aspect of scientific thinking that differentiates it from other models of human enquiry and expression such as literature and art is its dedication to rational and empirical enquiry. The scientific objectivity consists of
- a) Refutable hypothesis
- b) Testing of hypothesis
- c) Clarity in sating the result.
Scientific objectivity is intended to ensure that personal qualities like motivations, positions, prominence do not play a role in times of research work. For example if we carry an experiment we will presume according to the existing knowledge that the result should be like X is formed, however in the end if Y is formed instead of X, researcher has to think on the objectivity of his research, and has to analyze the Y and study the relationship between X and Y. Then the real objectivity of the research is fulfilled.
- Honesty and integrity: Honesty is the principal value that underlines all of the other relationship values. Dishonesty undermines not only the results the specific research but also the entire scientific enterprise itself, because it threatens the trustworthiness of the scientific endeavor. Being honest is not always straightforward. It may not be easy to decide what to do with outlier data.
- Openness: Openness is ideal to strive in research. It almost always enhances the advance of knowledge and facilities others in meeting their responsibilities. A researcher always be prepared to share his data and results along with new tools
- Carefulness: Every researcher has to take care in carrying out his research to avoid mistakes. A review of work should be carefully and critically done to ensure credible results. It is also important to keep full records of research.
- Accountability: Accountability implies an obligation to explain or justify one’s behavior. Accountability requires that individuals be willing and able to demonstrate the validity of their work or the reason for their actions. Accountability goes hand in hand with the credit researchers receive for their contributions to science and how this credit builds their reputations as members of the research community. Central point of functioning of the research is the fundamental value that members of the research community are responsible for and stand behind their work, statement, actions, and roles in the conduct of their work. The accountability expected of individuals and organizations involved with research may be formally specified in policies or regulations.
- Stewardship: Good steward ship involves decision about support and influences on science. Stewardship is particularly evident in the commitment of the research community to education. Education is one way in which engaging in science provides benefits both to those within the research community and general public outside the research arena. One area where individual researchers exercise stewardship is by performing service for their institution, discipline, or the broader research enterprise that may not necessarily be recognized or rewarded. At a broader level, researchers, institutions, sponsors, journals, and societies can contribute to the development and updating of policies and practices affecting research.
- Fairness: Fairness in adhering to explicit criteria and process reinforce a system in which the core values can operate and trust among the parties can be maintained. Upholding fairness also requires researchers to acknowledge those whose work contributed to their progress. This is usually done through citing relevant work in reporting results. The importance of fairness is also evident in issues involving the duty of care toward human and animal research subjects.
- Responsible publication: A researcher should publish on order to advance in research. Care should be taken to avoid wasteful and duplicate publication.
- Respect for intellectual property: A researcher should never plagiarize, or copy, other people’ work and try to pass it off as your own. One should always ask for permission before using other people’s tools or methods. A researcher needs to respect copy rights and patents together with other forms of intellectual property and always acknowledge contributions to his research.
Conclusion: In general it may be concluded that research is a stressful environment. Under this stressful environment maintaining the said ethics is an herculean task to the researcher. However every researcher should imbibe to the above ethics for the benefit of his own and the benefit of the research community on whole. To walk along with these ethics during the research with living and nonliving (scientific experimental instruments) a researcher has to do lot of ground work. From day Zero onwards the researcher should develop a vivid idea about his research work, like broad area of the research, review of the work globally, major inventions in the field in recent times methodology employed, tools used and the outcome. A researcher should bear in mind that he should not prejudge the outcome. It is evident from research that anything is possible in science; researcher has to explore the reasons for the result and has to establish a scientific connectivity from the existing published research. To sum up in the 21st century research the ethics are highly needed for a healthy research community.
- Fostering integrity in Research, National Academy of Science. 2017, 326 pp.
- What is ethics in research & why is it important, David B. Resnik, NIH, https://www.niehs.nih.gov
- National Science Foundation nsf.gov
- Singapore statement of research integrity https://wcrif.org/singpore-statement