V . JAGANNADHA SASTRY
M.R COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS), VIZIANAGARAM ,
TYPES OF REASEARCH
Following are the basics types of research
Following research or Theoretical research : Any re-search making persistent effort to discover truth and something new to enrich human knowledge is called Fundamental Research:
It has Two Ways :
Discover of a New theory: Fundamental research consisting of entirely new discoveries, that is the knowledge which has not existed so far, it depends upon the researcher’s own ideas or imagination.
Development of Existence Theory : It emphasis an improvement in the existing theory either by way of replacing some of its assumptions or by reinterpreting it oy by developing a new theory is always based on assumptions.
Applies Research : Applied research is based open the application of known theories and models to the actual operational fields or population. It is conducted to test empirical contents :
Descriptive Research and analytical Research : Descriptive Research is the description of the state affairs as it exits of present. It includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds.
Quantitative & Qualitative Research : Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity. It is applicable in terms of quantity.
Conceptual and Empirical Research. Conceptual Re-search is related to some abstract idea or theory. One of the most important symbol in language especially as it related to research is the concept.0
Action Research : Action research is similar to applies or practical research. It is usually a post of big research programme. It is mainly related to the actual operations connected with an event or problem.
Ex-Post Facto research : Ex-Post Facto Research is a systematic empirical inquiry in which the researcher does not have direct control of independent variables because of their manifestation have already occurred.
Survey Research : Survey Research is the most popular scientific method for discovering relevant impact and inter-relationship of socio politics and psychological variable from given population.
Laboratory of Experimental Research : The research of this type is confined to laboratory experiments. Only the basic feature of such research is that there exist a possibility of exercising control over independent variables.
FIELD INVESTMENT Research : it is a research study in a realistic situation in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by experimenter under a carefully controlled conditions as the situations.
Evaluation research ; Evaluation research is a systematic collection of information about activities and outcomes of actual programme it is primarily directed to evaluate the performance of the development programme and the impact of programme.
There are three types of evaluation research :
The concurrent elevation it is a continuing process of inspection of the project that has been launched
Periodic of phasic evaluation : it takes place at different stages of performances of the project
Terminal Evaluation : it it the final phase of the project. Once the project has been completed.
Pre-requisites of research :
Planning : the project taken for study should clearly mention its definition and classification of purpose and scope of operation.
Guidance : Guidance cannot be separated from the general life of a research project. It helps the researcher to concentrate on the problem.
Experts : Research works require experts. Expert means he who is experiences in certain area.
Training : in research work trained teachers or researchers do the work up to their maximum satisfaction. They know how to organize, how to plan and how to implement he project for its completion.
Finance: Education is one of the most importance enterprises of a nation. It is concerned with the whole population.
References : for any research project references should be followed. It has a great impact. In the mind of the researcher.
Library ; Library is the reassure of knowledge. It provides large number of materials through books of which quality, quantity and variety are endless.
Research Journals : Now-a-days researches have been made in all fields of life. Any problem coming in economical, social and educational fields of life are taken for its deep study to find out its solution in that national as well as international field.
Important steps for research
Identification of the problem ; the individual when he is aced with a problem tries to understand the exact nature of the problem. It means “why is this problem and where is this problem”
Discussion regarding the proposal of action : the problem taken study have clear understanding in its meaning.
Constructing hypothesis After a good deal of thinking and discussion the researcher prepare a plan of action.
Collection of data : After forming the tentative solution of the problem the researcher has to collect the correct information from the subjects.
Presentation of Data : Data are presented in different ways. Census findings are presented in bar graphics.
Analysis of Data : The data collected are to be discussed vividly. So the researcher classifies the data for study in two categories. Descriptive analysis and statistical analysis.
Declaration of the results: the main function of the research ios to convey the results of the work at the end to all, otherwise it will be worthless in its use.
When we have to proceed towards some destination, the path of which is not known to us it should be located in a perfect way.
Characteristics of Hypothesis,
Hypothesis selected for research should be testable— for any problem when the hypothesis is formed it must be tested to know its effectiveness.
It should state relationship between variable
It should be limited in scope.
Types of hypothesis
Hypothesis are classified into three divisions.
Descriptive hypothesis : it describes the uniformly which exists in a group or in behaviour of a group of people.
Logical Hypothesis Descriptive hypothesis: Logical hypothesis are applied when they behave in an uniformed way. What are reasons behind it.