“TRIBAL WOMEN EDUCATION IN A.P”
Andhra University, AP,
The level of educational development among tribes differs vastly across our States. The national average literacy rate among them is 58.96 per cent. The state Andhra Pradesh average literacy rate among them is 49.2 per cent, which is the lowest in the country. Compared to all the States the tribes in Andhra Pradesh stand at the lowest level. Various educational policies and programmes implemented have resulted in improved access to education. The efforts to attain equity and quality are also praise worthy. But universalization of education at the elementary, secondary and higher education levels has not yet been achieved. The study emphasises the need for providing more emphasis on demand-side interventions for better access. Besides creating environment for public awareness, training and human security, the appropriate strategy for the introduction of value-education and vocationalisation of education at the school level also called for, for sustainable development Literacy is an important indicator of development among tribal groups. The trend of literacy of tribes in India from 1961 to 2011 the percentage of literacy of tribes was only 8.53 per cent in 1961 which has increased to 58.96 per cent in 2011. But female literacy of tribes is only 49.35 per cent compared to male literacy of 68.53 per cent. During the post-Independence period, the Indian government implemented legislation and allocated funds to facilitate access to enrolment in primary education (grades I-V) in India. As a result, both literacy rates and gross enrolment ratios of boys and girls across the general population have increased substantially during the past 50 years there are many problems in the field of tribal education such as Medium of language, The Location of the Village, Economic Condition, Attitude of the parents, Teacher Related Problems and Lack of Proper monitoring are the main problems. These problems arise by different conditions in the hill area and other environmental conditions in the tribal area. As a result, tribal communities continue to face economic deprivation and lack of access to basic services. Realizing the need to improve the overall status of tribes, their education has emerged at the forefront of recent development efforts. In the context of tribal education, finding a balance between preserving tribal cultural identity and mainstreaming for economic prosperity means building education programs that ensure a tribal child’s success in mainstream schools. Recognizing that the education system is currently designed for the dominant group, there needs to be investment in creating support mechanisms that supplement the integration of tribal children into the formal education system. This would provide a solid foundation that averages these assets and develop stronger individual potential that can transcend the barriers experienced by tribes in main stream society. It is in this context there is need to study about tribal education status the assessing the results and prepares to global scenario of education and development of tribes in Andhra Pradesh.
This Topic discusses the educationally the tribal women population is at different levels of development but overall the formal education has very little impact on tribal women groups. Earlier government had no direct programme for their education, but in the subsequent years the reservation policy has made some changes. There are many reasons for low level of education among the tribal women formal education is not considered necessary to discharge their social responsibility. Superstitions and myths play an important role in rejecting their women education. Most tribes live in below poverty level. It is not easy for them to send their girl children to schools. Girl child as they are considered extra helping hands in home needs. The formal schools do not hold any special interest for the children. Most of the tribes are located in interior and remote areas. So they consider to girl child and women birth is only working home and fulfil for family needs. Tribal women didn’t know any women rights, educational rights, fundamental rights. When tribal women changed their perception of daily life and educational life they also developed equal to other category women. It’s possible through only education.
India is the seventh largest country in terms of area and second in terms of population. It has been described as a melting pot of races and tribes by many of the anthropologists and researchers, due to its multi cultural and racial characters. The tribal population constitutes 8 percent of the total population spread over the country. It is estimated that the pre dominant tribal areas comprise about 15 percent of the total geographical area of the country. Their main concentration is the central tribal belt in middle India and in the northeast. Further about 50% of the tribal population of the country is concentrated in the state of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odissa. In addition a sizeable tribal population is located in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. The tribal’s of India live in forest, hills, hillocks and naturally isolated areas which made them geographically isolated, economically weak, socially and educationally deprived and, far away to enjoy the fruits of development programmes. Yet they are rich in cultural aspects and behaviorally simple and trustworthy.
WOMEN EDUCATION IN INDIA:
Women education in India plays a very important role in the overall development of the country. It not only helps in the development of half of the human resources, but in improving the quality of life at home and outside. Educated women not only tend to promote education of their girl children, but also can provide better guidance to all their children. Moreover educated women can also help in the reduction of infant mortality rate and growth of the population.
EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF TRIBAL WOMEN:
The low educational status of tribal women is reflected in their lower literacy rate, lower enrolment rate and higher dropouts in the school. There is gender bias in the literacy of tribal population as in other groups, the female literacy being lower than the male literacy. Through there has been five-fold increase in the literacy of tribal females it still is much lower than the national average for the females.
Literacy rate based on 2011 census:
|India overall literacy||74.04|
|India Female literacy||65.46|
|India ST overall literacy||58.96|
|India ST Female literacy||49.35|
|A.P overall literacy||67.0|
|A.P Female literacy||59.1|
|A.P ST overall literacy||49.2|
|A.P ST Female literacy||40.1|
THE PROBLEM OF TRIBAL EDUCATION:
The vulnerability of tribal populations to exploitation by minor government officials, as well as moneylenders, landlords, and other agents of vested interest, can largely be traced to their illiteracy and general ignorance of the world outside the narrow confines of their traditional environment. Their inability to cope with the many novel forces impinging nowadays on tribal villages and on an economy which had remained virtually unchanged for centuries is by no means due to any innate lack of intelligence.
As long as they operate within their familiar atmosphere, tribals evince as much perspicacity, skill, and even true wisdom as any other populations, but as soon as they are faced by social attitudes rooted in a different system they become insecure and often behave in a manner detrimental to their own interests, brought up a system in which all communications are by word of mouth, and hence used to trusting verbal statements, they get confused by constant reference to documents and written rules, which increasingly determine all aspect of rural life. Unable to read even the receipt given by an official and obliged to put their thumb impression on documents which they cannot understand, they are easy victim of any fraud or misrepresentation which more educated exploiters likely to devise.
It is obvious, therefore, that a modicum of literacy is indispensable as a first step towards enabling tribes to operate within the orbit of the of the advance. Communities dominating the economic and political scene. The disadvantages under which illiterate tribes labour are multiples in the case of those who do not even speak and understand the language of the dominate population, and hence cannot communicate with officials except through better-educated fellow tribesmen acting as interpreters.
LITERACY AND EDUCATION:
Another vital indicator of status of women is educational level. Education plays a decisive role in widening human knowledge. Knowledge is a light. An intangible and weightless substance, it can easily travel the world and can spread its tentacles. Education particularly woman’s education spreads its light to the household and to the country alike as reiterated by the Telugu saying “Illali Chaduvu Intiki Velugu” (meaning housewife’s education is the light for the entire house).Many studies reveal that the amount of education attained by girls and women is an important determinant of children’s health. A study of 45 developing countries found that the average mortality rate for children under five was 144 per 1000 live births when their mothers had no education, 106 per 1000 when they had primary education only, and 68 per 1000 when they had some secondary education World Bank Development Report (1998/99) Nevertheless, for centuries women have been denied their legitimate access to education and confined them to darkness. Even after the second millennium came to an end, substantial proportion of world women population is without even basic education not to speak of higher and technical education. Female adult illiteracy as a proportion of people is 38 per cent in the world. While in high income countries adult illiteracy is as low as 5 per cent, it is as high as 64 per cent in South Asia. Disparities in male and female adult illiteracy are though, global phenomenon, it is more severe in India.
- Suresh manjhi, “status and empowerment of tribal women”, CRESCENT publishing corporation-2015., pp-248.Ibid-249.
- Suresh manjhi, “status and empowerment of tribal women”, CRESCENT publishing corporation-2015., pp-254
- Suresh manjhi, “status and empowerment of tribal women”, CRESCENT publishing corporation-2015., pp-271.
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