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Ever since, India got Independence , much emphasis has been laid on education system. Education plays very important role in the process of nation buildings Present education system of India is in the form of Primary Education, Secondary Education and Tertiary Education, i.e., Higher Education. . Several changes has come up in Higher Education over the years. The Higher Education plays a very important role in nation building.Choice Based Credit System has been made mandatory by the UGC under the XI plan of Higher Education .CBCS has been successful inequalising the higher education system through the uniform evaluation system. Flexibility in choosing credits, opting different soft course, mobility of students and common syllabi. My papers tries to bring out the background of Higher Education System in India and discuss features ,objectives, merits and demerits of CBCS .
Ever since, India got Independence, much emphasis has been laid on education system. Education plays very important role in the process of nation buildings. Present education system of India is in the form of Primary Education, Secondary Education and Tertiary Education, i.e., Higher Education. Several changes has come up in Higher Education over the years. The Higher Education plays a very important role in the process of developing nation. Major inventions and discoveries, innovations of a nation are the fruits of Higher Education. Many commissions has been constituted from time to time to improve and remove the anomalies of education system. The University Grants Commission has come up with various regulation and guidelines from time to time to improve the Higher Education system and maintain standards and quality across Higher Educational Institute in India. Ensuring uniformity and quality in Education system , especially at Under Graduate (UG) level, Post Graduation(PG)level, diploma and certificate programmes based on credit system has been made compulsory by UGC under the XI plan of Higher Education .

The Higher Education Institutions in India are moving from conventional annual system to semester system .Many Educational Institutions ie. Higher Education Institutions ,Universities and Deemed to be Universities have already introduced CBCS in their curriculum. The basic idea of introducing CBCS is to keep up-to-date with development of higher education in India and abroad. CBCS aims to redefine the curriculum keeping in pace with the liberalisation and globalisation in educationThis system accelerates the teaching learning process and enables vertical and horizontal mobility learning .The credit based semester system provides flexibility in designing curriculum and assigning credits based on the course content and hours of teaching. The CBCS system provides a ”cafeteria” type approach in which the students can take courses of their choice , learn at their own pace , undergo additional courses and acquire more than the required credits and adopt an interdisciplinary approach to learning .It is essential that Higher Education Institutions move to CBCS and implant the grading system.

• This is a uniform CBCS for all central and state and other recognised universities.
• There are three main courses: Core, Elective and Foundation.
• There are also non-credit courses available which will be assessed as ‘Satisfactory’ or “Unsatisfactory’. This is not included in the computation of SGPA/CGPA..
• All the three main courses will be evaluated and accessed to provide for an effective and balanced result.

The main objectives of introducing CBCS by UGC at UG and PG Courses
• Need for reforms and improve the higher education .
• Enhance learning opportunities to students .
• Ability to match the learners scholastic needs and aspiration.
• To facilitate mobility across Universities and Colleges.
• To bring quality and excellence in education system .
• Aims at greater flexibility and freedom to complete the course.
• Standardisation and comparability of educational programmes across the country.
• CBCS pattern gives full opportunity to the learners to pursue education as per their choice.
• This system of evaluation offers maximum opportunities and avenues to the learners to learn core subjects along with soft courses for their holistic development.
• It serves as a bridge to fill the gap between the two students of various courses as it has a provision of offering core subjects with the addition of different soft courses. It means students have an opportunity to pursue core subjects as well as soft courses of other departments simultaneously.
• It is a shift from the teacher centre to learner centre education. Learners can offer as many credit as they can cope up the pressure of the examination. It permits learners to choose soft courses of different interdisciplinary and intra disciplinary subjects with the core subjects. It is also helpful to the learners to choose courses and papers as per their choice and interest.
• It facilitates mobility to learners from one institution to another one. It would take education system on par with global standards.
• This system of evaluation offers 10 point letter grading system.
• It facilitates the learners to pursue the courses of their choices at different times.
• It helps learners to realize their potentials through the flexibility in offering courses.
• It has broadened the base of education system. All round development of learners or multi facets personality of learners can be promoted through these courses.
• It gives immediate employment, as knowledge of different soft courses may helpful for that.
• Unlike convensional system, Stress and anxiety of learners can be reduced through it. Work efficiency can be enhanced. Development of professional skills can be possible.
• It ensures uniformity in education system in terms of evaluation and assessment. It puts emphasis on seminar presentation, assignment, discussion, project etc. based teaching.
• Internal assessment is given due importance (40-intrenal and 60-external). Slow learners can get advantage from it, as it has the flexibility in choosing credits at one time.
• Equality among the learners can be ensured through it, as it has the grading system. Globally acclaimed education system can be maintained through it, as it has the provision of offering different courses at the same time.
• Student could opt for course as per their ability. It creates a favourable learning environment, as everyone is supposed to take part in learning process as per their ability and competency.
• It ensures Cooperation and healthy relationships among the learners. Habits of work commitment of learners can be strengthened.
In spite of many advantages, there are some disadvantages of Choice Based Credit System.
• Grading system in CBCS results in difficulty to measure or calculate the exact marks.
• Teachers would suffer with increase in work load , it would affect the regular teaching.
• Maintaining compatibility among main subject’s papers and soft papers would be challenging one. Offering more than one programmes of different nature simultaneously would be challenging one
• Limited resources and many courses would lead to imbalance in teaching –learning resources
• Extra burden would be experience by the institution as CBCS has the flexibility in taking or choosing 32 credits
• Equalization in standard of education system should be maintained to check the mobility of students
• Mobility or transferring of students from one institution to another would lead to many new problems
• Learner fails to acquire mastery over concerned subject ,as he learns many subjects.
• If mobility was given top priority, students would desire to move from sub- standard institution or university to standard one. This may pose problems in maintaining the cumulative record of every student and threat to the new institutions
• Students lack seriousness in examination as much weightage is given to internal assessment and evaluation.
• Mobility and courses will lead to increase in infrastructure or accommodation to the students.
• Equalisation of performance may discourage the gifted and talented students.
• Teachers spend most of their valuable time in setting papers, valuation and making arrangements for examinations, innovations in teaching would get hampered.
• Chance of subjectivity would be maximum, as internal evaluation has 40 % weightage.
Undoubtedly, CBCS is students’ friendly, as Indian education system is under reformatory process. . The UGC has always taken measures to bring efficiency and excellence in the Higher Education System. The basic motive is to expand academic quality in all aspects, right from the curriculum to the learning-teaching process to examination and evaluation system. So far different methods are followed by different educational institutions towards examination, evaluation and grading system ,but implementation of the choice based credit system seems to be a good system in assessing the overall performance of a student in a universal way of a single grading system. Keeping these things in mind, and seeking the feedback from the experts in formulation of New Education Policy should be done. However, Implementation of CBCS has cast a positive effect on the higher education system. But the existing differences between Central University, State University and Colleges in terms of efficient teachers, academic environment, infrastructure etc would pose problem in the success of it.

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