The Concept of Physical Fitness in relation to Health and Skills
* Lecturer in Physical Education M.R.(A) College ,
Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh .
Since childhood we have heard our elders saying that ‘health is wealth’, however, only a few of us have actually realized the importance of physical fitness and made it part of our lifestyle. Good health does not only mean to have a body free from diseases but it refers to complete mental, physical, spiritual, and social well-being of a person.
In today’s competitive world people find it very hard to take time out of their hectic schedule and take up any form of beneficial physical activity. Many people work under stressful conditions and neglect their health. This has resulted in an increase in the number of diseases among individuals such as cancer, obesity, diabetics, depression, and hypertension, etc.
Key benefits to getting your heart rate pumping with physical activity.
1.Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease : Physical activity can strengthen your heart and help it pump blood and deliver oxygen to your body. Several studies have also shown that regular physical activity boosts high-density lipoprotein (HDL – otherwise known as ‘good’ cholesterol) and decreases unhealthy triglycerides (the amount of fat in your bloodstream). This keeps your blood flowing smoothly, which decreases your risk of cardiovascular disease.
2.Prevent Illness : It’s not just your heart that will thank you for exercising. Physical activity reduces the risk of Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer, obesity and injury, with many studies supporting these findings.
3.Depression and Anxiety : Whether you use it to kick-start your morning or blow off steam after a stressful day, one of the biggest benefits of physical activity is that it can improve mood and relieve stress, anxiety and depression. Physical activity decreases stress hormones and releases endorphins, the body’s natural feel-good chemicals. people who exercise regularly (even when they engage in non-vigorous physical activity) experience fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than those who don’t exercise regularly.
4.Get Stronger : It’s no secret that physical activity like resistance training or weight training can give you muscles you never knew you had, but did you know it has other significant functional benefits? These include improving and increasing joint function, bone density and muscle, tendon and ligament strength
5.Aid Weight Loss :Looking to get to or stay at a healthy weight? Both diet and physical activity play a critical role in controlling your weight. Everything you eat contains calories, and everything you do uses calories. It follows that the more you do, the more calories you use. Even simpler forms of physical activity – like taking the stairs instead of the lift – will help burn extra calories.
6.Longer Life : Research by the Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the US National Cancer Institute found that the more physical activity you engage in, the longer you’re likely to live. The study, of more than 650,000 people over 10 years, found that around 150 minutes of brisk walking per week can equate to an extra 3.4 years of life expectancy. It also found that obese people (those with a body mass index of more than 30) can enjoy the benefits of physical activity. By engaging in exercise, they’re likely to live 3.1 years longer than someone of a normal weight who doesn’t engage in physical activity.
7.Bost Memory : The effect of physical activity on your brain has been well documented, and recent research from the USA confirms physical activity has benefits for memory. Comparing a group who had exercised for one month with one that hadn’t, researchers found the active group performed better in memory tests. With physical activity extending your life expectancy, you want to make sure you can remember the good times!
8.Imorove Your Sex Life : According to a study from the University of Arkansas, physical activity boosts blood flow to the genital region, making it easier for women to hit ‘the big O’. And it’s not just the ladies who feel the benefits.
9.Sleep Easier : Running to the medicine cabinet or the doctor for sleeping pills is one way to battle insomnia, but aerobic exercise might be the best prescription.
Definition of Physical Fitness:
Physical fitness is defined as the state of general well being, physically sound and healthy, along with mental stability.
Previously fitness was commonly defined as the capacity of the person to meet the physical demands of daily life and carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue.
However, because of increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles rendered this definition insufficient. These days, physical fitness is considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypo-kinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.
Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.”
Physical fitness can be classified into following categories:
- Health related fitness components
- Skill related components of physical fitness
- Physiological components of fitness
- Sports related components of fitness
Health related fitness components: 5
These are –
- Body composition
- Cardiovascular fitness
- Muscular endurance
- Muscle strength
Health Related Physical Fitness –
what is Health Related Physical fitness? – It is best defined as activity aimed to improve your health. The goal of health related fitness is prevention of or rehabilitation from disease as well as the development of a high level of functional capacity for daily tasks.
Health related physical fitness is further divided into 5 parts i.e. components of health related physical fitness are –
1. Balanced BODY COMPOSITION –
In other words the ratio of fat to muscle. Minimum of fat and maximum of lean mass is a sign of a healthy and fit body.
2. CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS or ENDURANCE –
Cardiovascular endurance can be defined as the component which helps to determine if the heart and lungs are working in coordination. It shows the ability of the body to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues and to remove wastes.
Cardiovascular exercises or aerobics -walking, running, biking, rowing, treadmills
3. FLEXIBILITY –
Flexibility can be defined as the component which checks the ability of the joints in the body to move to their full range of motion.
Flexibility exercises – stretching, yoga, Tai Chi
4. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE –
Muscular endurance is defined as the ability of the body to perform repeated exercises without getting tired. If a person can perform more number of repetitions of a particular strength training exercise, then it can be said that he/she has good muscular endurance.
Strength training exercises such as running, jogging, cross-training on an elliptical machine, etc.
5.MUSCLE STRENGTH –
Muscle strength can be defined as the capability of the muscles to lift weight. By doing weight training exercises every alternate day increases the muscle mass of the body.
Weight training exercises – push ups, pull ups, biceps curls, pectoral fly, leg extensions, back extension, etc.
Skill related components of physical fitness: 6
- Reaction Time
Is the ability to change the position of your body and to control the movement of your whole body. Agility is an important quality in many sports, because you must change direction rapidly and always have your body under control.
Is the ability to keep an upright posture while either standing still or moving. Good balance in essential in many activities like skating, surfing, skiing, and gymnastics.
Is the ability to perform with strength at a rapid pace. Strength and speed are both involved in power. Football players, swimmers, shot-putters, discus throwers, and high jumpers are examples of athletes who typically have a high degree of power.
Is the amount of time it takes to start a movement once your senses signal the need to move. People with good reaction time can usually start quickly in track and swimming or react quickly in ping pong or karate.
Is the integration of eye, hand, and foot movements. This component is necessary for success in such sports as baseball, softball, tennis, golf, and basketball.
Is the ability to cover a distance in a short amount of time. Speed is a very important factor in many sports and activities. Short runs are used to evaluate speed.
Physical fitness and wellness is far more attainable than commonly perceived. A good physical fitness and wellness can be described as a condition that helps individuals look, feel and do their best.