ISSN NO. 2581-9070 ONLINE



 Dr. Raj Narayan Awasthi

Senior Officer (Official Language) & In-charge

 Chief Editor ‘ECIL Gaurav’

Corporate Office, Electronics Corporation of India Limited

 (Dep’t of Atomic Energy Enterprise), Hyderabad- 500 062

[email protected]         +91 7013963319  


Now a days, translation is becoming one of the most challenging and dynamic discipline day by day. The invention of internet, together with the latest technological developments in communication and digital materials has entirely changed the traditional method of translation. Daily new concepts are emerging in the electronics institutions. Annual Report translation of any strategic sector institutes or public sector, as well as private sector needs an extra ordinary exposure. It requires and also expects the basic knowledge of technical domains, technical projects, statutory terminology of the accounts and audits and also overview of the respective corporation. In any annual report translation, translator should be very accurate, brief and clear about the concepts and ‘Vision & Mission’ of Corporation. Translator should be well thorough with the products and projects of the corporation. While translating he/ she should maintain the balance between language aspect of text and technical aspect of products and projects. In this paper various aspects of Annual Report translation have been discussed in details and mostly practical aspects of translation have also been touched. Application of the paper has not been confined with only ‘Annual Report’ but same principle applies to various ‘Technical Reports’ also. This paper aims to attract the interest of research scholars, students and professionals of translation study towards practical translation. In today’s advanced technological world, this is one of the most emergent and challenging issue in the field of translation study. In this paper various important issues in the field of technical translation will be discussed in details.

KEY WORDS: Nuclear, Aerospace, Defence, Security, IT and Telecommunication, Notes, Semantic, Equivalence, e-Governance, Borrowing, Descriptive equivalent and Couplets.

 Our linguistics theories never imagined the ever numeric figures will be more communicative than words. In fact, for numeric terms, there is no translation. We have to use, as it is. For example 26/11 (terrorist attack in Mumbai) and 9/11 (terrorist attack in USA) have no translation. In Indian context 26/11 is 26th November but the 9/11 has been expressed in American form. In the Indian context, generally it will be thought that  9/11 is 9th November but actually, it is 9th September.

At the outset, translator must know the use of concept in the appropriate place and time. In the same way, another example is also very important. As famous scientist Albert Einstein was born on the pie day of 1879. Now, to translate this, translator has to know the meaning of mathematical term pie. Generally, most of the translator will assume that he was born on 22-07-1879, as the value of pie is 22/7, But, the real translator should think beyond that, as pie is having another value 3.14 also. In the American system, this 3.14 will be written as 14.3. So, Albert Einstein was born on 14-03-1879. In scientific organisations various documentaries of world class scientists are being lettered. In this case, translator should be very alert and cautious. To understand the local concept of special words is most dynamic and challenging fact.

When translator is having knowledge about corporation’s products, projects and overview and other important concepts, he/ she can start the translation work. He/ She should always remember two basic goals and objectives of translation, “Adequacy” & “Fluency”, both in theory and application. These are the main criteria that translator should always remember. Focusing exclusively on the translation of technical, engineering and scientific documents especially strategic electronics in the field of Nuclear, Defence, Aerospace, Security, IT and Telecommunication and e-Governance, where precession, accuracy and consistency are paramount importance and notoriously these are challenging to achieve. How to achieve this, is the ‘Acid Test’ for any translator. To overcome these challenges, following translation process should be applied:-

  • The translator should examine his/ her own decision making process as oneself progress through the translation
  • Make the list of the kinds of stylistic parameters, the translator need to work (e.g. technicality of terminology and formality of tone)


This type of translation should be managed by translators with background in science and technology. In this context the whole responsibility lies not only with the translator but the reader should also understand the various complications of translation. When translator starts ‘Annual Report’ or ‘Technical Report’ translation, he/ she comes across various areas of translation, hence it requires knowledge of following topics:-

  • Knowledge of technical subjects
  • Knowledge of technical projects
  • Overview of the corporation
  • Knowledge of accounts and audits
  • Knowledge of accounts balance sheet
  • Terminology of statutory audit
  • Knowledge about applicability of various products

Knowledge of technical subjects

Though the translation is exercise between two languages, but one cannot over overlook the technical aspects of translation. One field of vocabulary cannot be applied into other field of vocabulary. While translating, writer of this paper has experienced the word ‘Outstanding’ has got extreme positive meaning in scientific organisations. ‘Outstanding Scientist’ is a well dignified designation, but in Accounts department, ‘Outstanding’ means ‘due’. It is in negative sense. So, when translating, the translator must understand that particular word belongs to which domain.

Knowledge of Technical Projects

Translation of technical projects is also helpful in translation. Some of the words are not having equivalent in other language. So these words can be transliterated.

Overview of the corporation

Translation is not just transfer from one language to other. The translation should reflect the ‘Vision’ and ‘Mission’ of Corporation.

Knowledge of Accounts and audits including balance sheet

While translating balance sheet, one must be thorough and careful. Even a single mis-adjustment can lead a mistake in tallying up the balance sheet. For this, translator can take the help of accounts experts.

Terminology of statutory audit

In Statutory audit, particularly  in ‘Draft Paras’ utmost care should be taken. Only the legal terminology words should be used.

Knowledge about applicability of various products

Products translation is somewhat difficult. Because the translator should know the operation activity of products – even a single mistake can hamper the reputation of Corporation’s product in the market. Hence, the translation must submitted for getting duly vetting and approval to particular product expert.

Many researches, scholars, linguists and scientific translators have come across challenges with respect to the flow and adequacy of translation. In this context renowned physicist and scientific translator Martin Greenlinger made an appeal and alert to readers while translating original book “Physics for everyone: Book-1 physical bodies” from Russian to English that while reading the translation reader should stop for a while to understand and then they should give pause for thought. He has used very perfect and appropriate adjective for readers i.e. ”A careful reader”. In his words “A careful reader, I realize, we feel the difference. But I have tried to preserve the presentation principles that thou that I followed. These are the deductive principles rather than the Historical. We also felt that it will be well to use the language of everyday life and inject some humour at the same time we did not over simplify. If the reader wants to fully understand the subject, he must be prepared to read some places many times and pause for thought”.

In Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) procedural and operational translation, mostly scientific terminology is used. In most of the PSUs, same types of products and projects are executed. But some of the PSUs, different types of production activities are undertaken. Electronics Corporation of India Limited, a Govt. of India Enterprise under the Department of Atomic Energy is doing ‘Research & Development’ work and various projects under following verticals:-

  • Nuclear Sector
  • Aerospace Sector
  • Defence Sector
  • Security Sector
  • IT and Telecommunication Sector
  • e-Governance Sector

For translating “Annual Report” as well as “Technical Brochures” of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs), which are having their domains in various verticals, translator should be well acquainted with technical aspects of Annual Report. Knowledge of lingual and theoretical aspects of Annual Report will be an added valued advantage. There will be mainly 10 chapters of Annual Report:-

  • Board of Directors
  • Key Executives
  • Chairman’s Statement
  • Director’s Report
  • Management Discussion and Analysis
  • Corporate Governance
  • Significant Accounting Policies
  • Accounts for the Financial Year
  • Auditor’s Report
  • Comments of the Comptroller & Auditor General (C& AG)

The translation of any ‘Annual Report’ is a time bound project. Therefore, ‘Time Management’ is another most important factor in translation. Many input giving sections are being involved in Annual Report compilation. This should not be dealt as a normal routine translation work, but it should be taken as ‘Domain Specific Translation Project’. In most of the University’s translation studies courses ‘Time Management in translation process’ has not been covered. To meet the ‘dead line’ translator should manage himself/ herself. In all the aspects he/ she should use many translation practices. He/ She should follow the critical approaches of translation techniques. In ‘Scientific Research & Development’ oriented organizations following translation forms are used:-


  1. Transliteration
  2. Transcreation
  3. Transcription
  4. Transformation
  5. Adaptation

Before using above practices of translation, every chapter of translation should be analyzed with respect to subject, reference and its application. For this, translator should apply following Methods, Techniques and Procedures:-

  • Methods
  1. Word for Word Translation
  2. Literal Translation
  3. Faithful Translation
  4. Semantic Translation
  5. Free Translation
  6. Idiomatic Translation
  7. Communicative Translation
  1. Word for Word Translation

This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the Target Language (TL) immediately below the Source Language (SL) Words. The SL words order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of word-for-word translation is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as a pre-translation process.

  1. Literal Translation

The Source Language (SL)  grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest Target Language (TL)  equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre-translation process, this indicates the problem to be solved.

  1. Faithful Translation

A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the Target Language (TL)  grammatical structures. It transfers cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical ‘abnormality’ (deviation from SL norms) in the translation. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intention and the text realization of Source Language (SL)  writer.

  1. Semantic Translation

Semantic translation differs from the ‘faithful translation’ only in as for as it must take more account of the authentic value (that is, the beautiful and natural sound) of the Source Language (SL) text, compromising on ‘meaning’ where appropriate, so that no assonance, word play or repetition jars in the finished version. Further, it may translate less important cultural words by cultural natural third or functional terms but not by cultural equivalents and it may make other small concession to the readership. The distinction between ‘faithful’ and ‘semantic’ translation is that the first is un compromising and dogmatic, while the second is more flexible, admits the creative empathy with the original.

  1. Free Translation

Free translation reproduces the matter without manner, or the content without the form of the original. usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so called inter-lingual translation; often prolix and pretentious, and not translation at all.

  1. Idiomatic Translation

Idiomatic translation reproduces the massage of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialism translation; often prolix and pretentious, and not translation at all.

  1. Communicative Translation

Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readability acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.

  • Techniques
  1. Functional Equivalence
  2. Formal Equivalence
  3. Linguistic Equivalence
  4. Transcription
  5. Borrowing
  6. Descriptive
  7. Self-Explanatory
  • Procedures
  1. Transference
  2. Naturalization
  3. Cultural Equivalent
  4. Functional Equivalent
  5. Descriptive Equivalent
  6. Componential Analysis
  7. Synonymy
  8. Through Translation
  9. Shifts or Transpositions
  10. Modulation
  11. Recognized Translation
  12. Compensation
  13. Paraphrase
  14. Couplets
  15. Notes

This paper has touched the translation of mainly strategic electronics of Corporate Sector’s Annual Reports. The paper presents and explores many concepts , but these can only be properly extended by careful reading and comprehension of the various national and international level technical research projects. In the defence sector a lot of translation and translation evaluation work is being done. The following reference books may prove to be very important who wants to pursue their research work in the field of strategic electronics technical projects translation. The following reference will be most appropriate to be of particular value in the initial stage of research and translation work in the field of translation:-

Mona Baker (ed.) (1998) : The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies

London and New York: Routledge


David Crystal (2003) : A dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics

Oxford: Blackwell, 5th Edition


Jeremy Mundey (2001) : Introducing Translation Studies; Theories and applications: Lindon and New York: Routledge


Mark Shuttle Worth and Moriah Cowie (1997) : Dictionary of translation studies,

Manchester: St. Jerome


Lawrence Venuti (ed.) (2000) : The Translation Studies Reader

London and New York: Routledge


In the progress of Translation studies will be going to contribute immense. In western countries translation study is a major important subject in their Education curriculum and in service training. In this context Williams and Chesterman, the famous scholars in the field of translation study has illustrated follows areas of Research study:

  1. Text analysis and Translation
  2. Translation quality Assessment
  3. Translation of Scientific genres
  4. Multimedia Translation (Audio Visual Translation)
  5. Translation and Technology
  6. Translation history
  7. Translation Ethics
  8. Terminology and Glossaries
  9. Translation process
  10. Translator Training
  11. The Characteristics of Translation profession.

Translation is a very complex subject. Here three things are most important

  1. Map of discipline interfacing with translation studies
  2. Translator Training
  3. The Characteristics of Translation profession.

When translation work is completed, translator should read his own translation and evaluate not as a translator but as a third person. In fact, nobody can evaluate his/ her translated text better than himself/ herself. While evaluating translator should keep following points in his/ her mind:-

  • Does the text read fluently?
  • Is the translation grammatically correct?
  • Is the spelling correct?
  • Are there justified inferences?
  • Is the vocabulary adequate?
  • Is the vocabulary consistently throughout the text?
  • Is the translation performed according to the text?
  • Is the translation performed according to the assignment?
  • Could the translation be used according to the style norms for this text?
  • Is the overall result satisfactory?

Above 10 most important points in translation should be measured on ”5 points Likert Scale”. In “Likert Scale” there answers should be read as follows:-

Not at all : 1
A bit : 2
Some what : 3
Much : 4
Completely : 5

More number will indicate that evaluation is of high standard. On the basis of above benchmarks translator should restore the original meaning of the text. For restoring the three aspects are more important

  • Semantic
  • Pragmatic
  • Textual

When appropriate meaning will be restored co-relation between field, Tenor and Mode will be established Suo-motu. In conclusion, the new translators should come forward with the best and most appropriate practices of translation. It will take this discipline towards the knowledge production in India in long way. Now to boost-up the ‘Skill India’, ‘Start up India’ and ‘Stand up India’, Technical Translation is going to play very vital role. In this context the role of Higher Educational Institutions and Strategic Electronics Institutes will be very important.

 Bibliography :

1. Ballard,P.B. : Thought and Language, Univ. of London Press Ltd., London
2. Bekios J. : An efficient method of building multilingual lexical resources, International Journal of Translation. Bahri Pub., New Delhi
3. Chakraborthy, Basudeo : What Translation really means

Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray

Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

4. Das, B. K. : Problems of Translation Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi
5. Das, B. K. : A Hand Book of Translation studies

Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi

6. Suka Joshua : Translation: Its brief History and Theory Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray

Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

7. N.Krishnaswamy : An Introduction to Linguistics for Language teachers

Somalia Publications, Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai

8. N. Krishnaswamy

S. K.Verma & Nagarajan

: Modern Applied Linguistics

Mac millan India Ltd., Mumbai

9. Ramakundu : Reconstructing the tower of Babel: Equivalence in Translation; A rare case study. Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi
10. Ramakundu : Perspectives on Translation: Down to Centuries

Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray

Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi

11. N.Mohanty : Demystifying Translation Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi
12. Patil, Mallikarjun : Literary Translation: It’s importance, ways and difficulties, Studies in Translation

Ed.: Mohit K. Ray, Atlantic Pub. & Distributors, New Delhi

13. E.Sapir : Language: An Introduction to the study of speech

Granada Publishing Limited, London.

14. Tiwari, Anjana : Translation or Transcreation Studies in Translation, Editor: Mohit Kumar Ray, Atlantic Publ. and Distributors, New Delhi

 About author:

Dr. Raj Narayan Awasthi is Senior Officer (Official Language) and In-charge, Chief Editor ‘ECIL Gaurav’ in Corporate Office, Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Hyderabad. ECIL is  a Public Sector Enterprise under the Dep’t of Atomic Energy (DAE). He is also Chief Editor of ‘ECIL Gaurav’, an ISSN awardee magazine. Presently, he is is pursuing intensive research project work in applied scientific translation in the field of ‘Aeronautical Engineering Mechanical Systems’.

        He has also served as a Qualified Technical Faculty at General Engineering Training Squadron, Mechanical Training Institute (Under Training Command), Indian Air Force Base, Chennai. In his over 30 years of experience in the field of scientific translation. He has translated and evaluated over 1000 technical research papers of the various domains of Engineering. He has been invited as a Visiting Guest Faculty by several Universities and National Institutions and has over 70 published research papers on translation studies in his credit. His main domain of translation expertise is in the field of Applied Linguistics and strategic electronics sectors i.e. Nuclear, Defence, Aerospace, security, e-Governance, IT and Telecommunication. He has presented his research paper ‘Applied sciences translation: An expansion of Hindi’ in 10th World Hindi Conference, Bhopal.