ISSN NO. 2581-9070 ONLINE



  1. Kalyanaramu*1, P. Kondababu2, G. Rupakumari*3
  2. Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Maharajah’s College (Aided & Autonomous), Vizianagaram-535002, Andhra Pradesh (India)
  3. Faculty, Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Maharajah’s College (Aided & Autonomous), Vizianagaram-535002, Andhra Pradesh (India)
  4. Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, MRAGR Govt. Polytechnic, Vizianagaram-535002, Andhra Pradesh (India)
  5.  * “Address for Correspondence”   [email protected]Cell no +91 9492593969   [email protected]Cell no +91 9441568050


         An assessment of the groundwater quality was carried out in Pusaptirega area of Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh. The study was aimed at examining the various samples of groundwater and groundwater quality was assessed for drinking. Eight groundwater samples were taken from boreholes of different locations and were analyzed for pH, Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, calcium and magnesium using standard methods. The results were compared with World Health Organization and BIS: 10500 standards. Range, Mean, Standard Deviation and Coefficient of Variance were calculated for each measured parameter. The usefulness of these parameters in predicting groundwater quality characteristics were discussed. Thus an attempt has been made to find the quality of groundwater in Pusaptirega area suitable for drinking purposes or not.

Key words: Analysis, Alkalinity, Calcium, EC, Magnesium, Total Dissolved Solids.


Water is a prime need for human survival and industrial development. For many rural and small scale communities, groundwater is the only source of drinking water. Assessment of groundwater for drinking has become a necessary and important task for present and future groundwater quality management. Groundwater quality depends on the quality of recharged water, atmospheric precipitation, inland surface water and subsurface geochemical processes. Temporal changes in the origin and constitution of the recharged water, hydrologic and human factors may cause periodic changes in groundwater quality. Water pollution not only affects water quality but also threats human health, economic development and social prosperity. So, the assessment of water quality is very important factor for knowing the suitability for drinking purpose .The geology of a particular area has a great influence on quality of water and its environment. The quality of groundwater varies due to a change in chemical composition of the underlying sediments and aquifer.


In the present investigation groundwater samples were collected from eight different locations in the study area in the month of January 2020. Sample locations are shown in the Table 1. Samples were collected in polythene bottles, pre-cleaned by washing with non-ionic detergents, rinsed with water, 1:1 hydrochloric acid and finally with de-ionized water . Before sampling, the bottles were rinsed three times with sample water. Tube wells were operated at least five minutes before collection of the water samples. The water quality parameter estimation was done using standard methods and techniques. Samples were brought to the laboratory for analysis of physic-chemical parameters. Samples were brought to the laboratory and kept at 4C until used for analysis of physico-chemical parameters. pH parameter was measured by digital pH meter (Elico LI- 120), EC measured by conductometer (Elico CL-351), TDS determined by Gravimetry, and other parameters such as Total Hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride  ions are determined by titrimetrically.

Table 1: Location of Samples

S. No Sample Id Sampling station Latitude Longitude


1 S1 Rellivalasa 1800529 830 3237
2 S2 Chowdavada 18005’37 8303819
3 S3 Rollichappidi 1800433 8303747
4 S4 Konada 1800121 830335
5 S5 Vempadam 1800457 830341
6 S6 Poram 1800609 8303326
7 S7 Alladipalem 1800806.4 8303656
8 S8 Nadipalli 180031 8303259


The results obtained from analysis of different groundwater samples are shown in Table 2. The statistical evaluations are given in Table 3.

Table 2: Measured Parameter values at different sampling stations

Table 2: Measured Parameter values at different sampling stations

Parameters S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 BIS/WHO desirable-permissible values
pH 7.59 7.22 7.19 7.23 7.24 7.15 7.44 7.22 6.5-8.5
EC 809 1673 1985 1845 1860 1341 2407 1737 750-3000
TDS 530 1090 1290 1200 1210 875 1560 1130 500-2000
TH 350 420 350 490 270 300 410 430 200-500
Ca 40 80 20 71 53 160 160 120 75-200
Mg 60 40 70 76 33 140 250 30 30-150
Cl 90 290 85 320 110 150 310 340 250-1000
TA 360 490 400 500 350 410 620 530 200-600


All the units are expressed in mg/l except pH (no units) and EC (micro Siemens/cm), EC=Electrical Conductivity, TDS=Total Dissolved Solids, TH=Total Hardness, TA=Total Alkalinity, Ca=Calcium, Mg=Magnesium, Cl= Chloride

Table 3: Descriptive Statistics of Parameters

Parameters Min Max Mean SD %CV
pH 7.15 7.59 7.285 0.15014 2.06
EC 809 2407 1707.13 470.889 27.58
TDS 530 1560 1110.63 303.65 27.34
TH 270 490 377.5 73.046 19.35
Ca 20 160 87.5 53.6523 61.32
Mg 30 250 86.25 75.0119 86.97
Cl 85 340 211.875 112.756 53.22
TA 350 620 457.5 93.465 20.43


          In the present investigation most of the water samples are colorless and odorless. However some water samples are slightly colored due to muddiness.

       TDS is an important parameter which imparts a peculiar taste to water and reduce its potability. Desirable limit of TDS is 500mg/l (IS: 10500 standards). The measured values of TDS groundwater samples in study area are ranged from 530 to 1560 mg/l with the mean value of 1110.63 mg/l, the standard deviation of ±303.65 and the coefficient of variance of 27.34%. The measured values of EC in study area are ranged from 809 to 2407 with the mean value of 1707.13, the standard deviation of ±470.89 and the coefficient of variance of 27.58%.

         The measured values of total hardness of studied groundwater samples are ranged from 270 to 490, with the mean value of 377.5 mg/l, standard deviation of ±73.046 mg/l and the coefficient of variance of 19.35%.  This indicates that most water samples are hard.

The measured values of calcium in study area are ranged from 20 to 160 mg/l with mean value of 87.5, the standard deviation of ±53.65 and the coefficient of variance of 61.32%. The measured values of magnesium are ranged from 30 to 250 mg/l with mean value of 86.25, the standard deviation of ±75.01 and the coefficient of variance of 86.97%.

      Chloride is an important quality parameter that affects the aesthetic property of water including taste and renders it unsuitable for drinking purpose if present in high concentration. The measured concentrations in study area are ranged from 85 to 340 with mean values of 211.875, the standard deviation of ± 112.76 mg/l and the coefficient of variance of 53.22%. The measured values of chloride in the present study area are on higher side considering WHO desirable limit of 250mg/l.

         The main sources of natural alkalinity are rocks, which contain carbonate, bicarbonate, hydroxide compounds and phosphates. The measured values of Total alkalinity in study area are ranged from 350 to 620 mg/l with mean value of 457.5, standard deviation of ±93.465 and coefficient of variance of 20.43%. Alkalinity itself is not harmful to human being, but in large quantity, imparts bitter taste to water and may cause eye irritation in human.


From the analysis, it is found that Magnesium content in samples collected from Rellivalasa (S1), Rollichappidi (S3), Konada (S4), and Alladipalem (S7) is higher than calcium content, which indicates that Groundwater is being contaminated with sea water. Continuous monitoring of groundwater is necessary for the health of human. According to the overall assessment of the focused area, some of the parameters analyzed are above the desirable limits of BIS /WHO and needs some degree of treatment before consumption.


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