Dr. B. Gowri Sankara Rao1*, Dr. D. B. R. K. Murthy1, Dr. G. V. S. Jayapala Rao1, S. Padmavathi1, Dr. M. RatnaRaju1, Ch. Chinnam Naidu1, G. Sreenivasa Rao1
1: M. R. College (Autonomous), Vizianagaram, Andhrapradesh, 535002.
*:- Corresponding Author; mail id:- [email protected]; Phone No:- 9492429747
The topics considered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paper of Master of Philosophy (M. Phil.) course and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) course. The manuscript is proposed for students and research scholars of science subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, biology and computer science.
What is Research?
Research is a logical and systematic search for new and useful information on particular topic. Research in common vernacular refers to a search for knowledge, through objectives, formulating a hypothesis, collecting data, analyzing facts and systematic method of finding solution to a problem towards the concern problems. It is a scientific and systematic search for relevant information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.
Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. Essentially, the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. It is also defined as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. Its aim is to give the work plan of research.
It is a search for knowledge, that is, a discovery of hidden truths. Here knowledge means information about matters. The information might be collected from different sources like experience, human beings, books, journals, nature, etc. A research can lead to new contributions to the existing knowledge. Only through research is it possible to make progress in a field. Research is indeed civilization and determines the economic, social and political development of a nation. The results of scientific research very often force a change in the philosophical view of problems which extend far beyond the restricted domain of science itself.
Research is not limited to science and technology only. There are huge areas of research in other disciplines such as languages, literature, history and sociology. Whatever might be the subject, research has to be an active, hard-working and systematic process of investigation in order to discover, interpret or revise facts, events, behaviours and theories. Applying the outcome of research for the improvement of knowledge in other subjects or in enhancing the quality of human life also becomes a kind of research and development.
The justification of method used, occupies considerable importance in many surveys in view of the fact that the data must be reliable, relevant, valid and complete to achieve the objectives. To conduct the various research studies, different researchers have used different methods in different ways for different purposes. While going through the various literatures, the important methodologies related to present studies, used by the various surveyors are , .
Types of Research
Research is broadly classified into two main classes:
- Fundamental or basic research
Basic research also called pure research or fundamental research or some time theoretical research. The scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
- Applied research
Applied research is a methodology used to solve a specific, practical issue affecting an individual or group. This scientific method of study and research is used in business, medicine and education in order to find solutions that may improve health, solve scientific problems or develop new technology.
Importance of Research
Research is important both in scientific and nonscientific fields. In our life new problems, events, phenomena and processes occur every day. Practically, implementable solutions and suggestions are required for tackling new problems that arise. Scientists have to undertake research on them and find their causes, solutions, explanations and applications. Precisely, research assists us to understand nature and natural phenomena.
How do you enter into a research career?
There are many ways to enter and start a research career. In India, one popular path is to appear for the National Eligible Test (NET) conducted by the National Education Testing Bureau of the University Grants Commission (UGC). This test is conducted twice in a year generally in June and December. The NET is conducted in humanities, languages, social sciences, forensic science, environmental sciences, computer science and applications and electronics. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) conducts the UGC–CSIR NET for science subjects like mathematical, physical, chemical, life, earth, atmospheric, ocean and planetary sciences–jointly with the UGC.
Various Stages of a Research
A general set of sequential components of research is the following:
- Selection of a research topic
- Definition of a research problem
- Literature survey and reference collection
- Formulation of Hypotheses
- Research design
- Actual investigation
- Data analysis
- Interpretation of result
. Busha, C.H. and Harter, S.P. Research Methods in Librarianship-1980: Techniques and Interpretations. Academic Press Inc., Orlando.
. Xiaona Dong, Research on the Teaching Methods of College English – 2016, 7, 1233-1236, Scientific Research.